ER stress pathway

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been implicated in the development of several neurodegenerative conditions, including Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and neuronal damage by ischemia. This pathway card highlights the up-regulated expression of ER stress response genes.

During ER stress, the expression of ER stress response genes (GRP78/BiP, CHOP, and ATF4) have been shown to be up-regulated. ER stress can be induced by many factors, including pathophysiological conditions (hyper-homocysteinemia, neurotrophic factor deprivation, and hypoxia) and pharmacological agents which can trigger the unfolded protein response and induce cellular dysfunction.