c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK), also known as stress-activated protein kinases, are a subfamily of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases. This pathway displays the different isoforms of JNK and their role in apoptosis, insulin resistance, inflammatory response and neural polarity.
JNK are multifunctional kinases involved in many physiological and pathological processes. Of the three existing isoforms, JNK1 and JNK2 are ubiquitously expressed while JNK3 is mainly expressed in neuronal and heart tissue. Activation of JNK plays a vital role in apoptosis, insulin resistance, inflammatory response and neural polarity.